by Lysenko, Serhiy Oleksiyovych
PhD in Law, associate professor in the Department of Security Management and Law Enforcement and Anti-Corruption Activities, Interregional Academy of Personnel Management
Modern polygraph in Ukraine has an increasing interest in the study of the factors that control the psychophysiological reactions of the organism. It has long been known that psychophysiological reactions are related to a person's emotions. It is the emotions about the stimuli that are often most important to the person at a certain moment and in a certain place, . I propose to consider some factors that have an undoubted influence on the everyday functions of the human body. These factors are often deprived of the attention of polygraph examiners in the study of psychophysiological reactions and the laws of their origin and development.
You all have probably had days when everything was falling from your hands, you fell into different overwhelming situations, you were unnecessarily conflicted or it was difficult to concentrate on any issue. Often you can blame this on the changing biological rhythms of your body.
Biological rhythms are fluctuations in the functional parameters of the human body relative to the conditioned zero level, deployed in time. All biological rhythms originate from the date of birth of a person, they come out of this date, which is a common zero point for them. The most important rhythms are three multi-day biological rhythms - physical, emotional and intellectual, which have the most powerful influence on the state of the organism .
In humans, the physical state (the physical biological rhythm) changes with a period of 23 days, more precisely 23.688437 days. The emotional biological rhythm changes with a period of 28 days, more precisely 28.426125 days. Intellectual abilities of a person, together with an intellectual biological rhythm, change with a period of 33 days, more precisely 33.163812 days. Half of the period is a positive value for the human body, during which the activity of the corresponding functions rises, and the second half is negative when there is a decrease in their activity .
The graphs of biorhythms have the form of a sinusoid, ranging from a maximum +100% activity level to a minimum -100% level, around the axis, reflecting the course of time measured in days. Zero zones are noted when the sinusoid crosses the axis and passes from the positive to the negative, and vice versa. In these places, the organism experiences a risk zone for those functions, because at these points, the functions, by their qualities, almost come to naught. Also, a special threat to humans can arise if all three basic biological rhythms of a person are in the negative zone, when all functions are reduced and weaken each other .
The first time I heard about the biological rhythms of a man was from a scientific adviser, Doctor of Psychology, Professor V. Klimenko. He described how, as a psychologist for the Soviet national chess team, he served the world champion Anatoly Karpov. It was then, according to him, the study of the basic biological rhythms of man was actively conducted. Professor Klimenko said there were even detective stories around the most successful dates for the three main biological rhythms of Karpov. Their team was trying to fix the date of the match, so they tried to set the date on these most successful dates for their athlete and on the most unfortunate dates for his opponent. And the opposing team, on the contrary, knowing and studying the same questions, tried to
counter these intentions and tried to win for themselves their most favorable days, and the unsuccessful days for the Soviet chess player. Professor Klimenko suggested that his calculations and conclusions, sometimes altered the fate of Soviet sport of chess .
Since then, I began to study the features of the influence of the three main biological rhythms on the psychophysiological reactions of man, in the context of polygraph. As a trained polygraph examiner, I sought to determine what, if any, influence these had on polygraph testing.
The physical biological rhythm is responsible for the physical condition of a person, his or her state of endurance, muscular and, most importantly, cardiac strength and endurance - the ability to withstand stress. During the positive period, the physical tone of the body rises, and during the negative period, it decreases.
Zero is a zone of high risk. In the zero zone, there are possible attacks of weakness and exacerbation of heart diseases, and an increased pain threshold for sensations. Psychophysiological reactions of a person become dulled, which is expressed in sluggish breathing. At the zero mark of the physical biological rhythm, as shown by laboratory tests, a person can have weakened sensitivity to reactions on the cardio channel. They sometimes acquire a chaotic form of heart failure, which reduces the information cardio channel .
With a weak cardiovascular activity, at zero mark of the physical biological rhythm, disturbances occur in the flow-isolation, respectively, the blood pressure channel which can then become less informative. In the event that it is not possible to postpone the polygraph for a day, it is recommended that more attention be given to stimulating the interviewee on a test topic. A thorough pre-test conversation is recommended, which could help activate memory, stimulating the release of additional adrenaline into the blood .
The emotional biological rhythm "guides" all five senses and is responsible for the body's ability to create and experience emotions. During a positive period of emotional biological rhythm, a person is able to create works of art, feel loved by others, and is often accompanied by a higher level of sensitivity. In the negative zone of this biological rhythm, people often experience a crisis of creativity and sensitivity, and they may be depressed. In zero, the most dangerous zones there is an increased tendency to be conflicted and experience excessive anxiety and irritability .
The psychophysiological reactions in such a state can be reflected in the form of a false positive result or a strong irritation in the testing procedure. There may be irritability and conflict in the discussion of the comparison and testing topics. In the zero indicator of emotional biological rhythm, a person's emotions can acquire an illogical, violent or decadent nature. In laboratory conditions, it has been established that polygraph channels may have an exaggerated response to relevant, neutral and comparison stimuli. The analysis of such tests can cause difficulty and can lead to an uncertain result. The examiner, in such cases, is recommended to carefully prepare for testing. If you get an undefined result, it is recommended to move the test to another day .
The intellectual biological rhythm determines the state of the person's mental activity, his or her ability to memorize various information, to study sciences, to learn, and to draw the conclusions. Accordingly, in the positive part of this biological rhythm such abilities are increased, and in the negative part they are lowered. In zero zones of intellectual biological rhythm, effective mental activity can become paralyzed . In the zero mark, it is difficult for the person interviewed to concentrate on the topic of verification, it is difficult to recall and update the situation in your mind.
In this case, it is necessary to devote more time to pre-test conversation and allocate more time to discuss details of the situation from the memory of a person. Particular difficulty can arise during testing by the search technique, where the whole emphasis is on remembering a person with respect to true private traits. In case of receiving undefined test results, I recommend moving the test to another day and repeating it in a different state of the person.
It should be noted that for each person, the level of influence of biological rhythms is very individualized, depending on what kind of lifestyle people lead. If a person engages in physical labor, constantly experiences physical exertion or trains his or her body, then the influence of the negative period of the physical biological rhythm will be less noticeable. Creative people, and people of art, regularly train their emotional abilities and they are able to better control their mood. Therefore, it is believed that the physical and emotional state of the body can be trained and then the effect of biorhythms will not be felt so strongly .
Only the intellectual level of a person is not subject to training, he or she is, or is not, intellectually motivated. The general level of a human education is constant and will fluctuate depending on the fluctuations of the intellectual biological rhythm of that person. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a pre-test conversation more attentively, to study the ways of life of a person in order to take into account the degree of possible influence of biological rhythms on him or her.
The study of the state of the biological rhythms of the organism of the respondents, before testing, can be helpful for a more thorough picture of their internal state. This study will help in planning further conversation and establishing contact .
As an aid to the work of a polygraph examiner in calculating the levels of three biological rhythms, I want to recommend mobile applications that do the calculations for you. This feature allows you to quickly determine the level of biological rhythms of the right person by the date of his birth and use it in his work. There are mobile apps commercially available to help assess these rhythms.
It should be noted that the problems associated with the influence of the three main biological rhythms on a person's psychophysiological reactions requires further study. Our laboratory and field experiments will attempt to test these new hypotheses. I hope for further cooperation in this direction with the APA for the development of science and technology for polygraph testing.
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